Julius Busecke
Tell Me More


The topics I care about

Oxygen Minimum Zones

Will they expand or shrink?

Mesoscale Mixing

Small scale dynamics influence the climate


I consider myself a “hybrid-oceanographer”.
In modern oceanography, observations, modeling and theory must not be seen as competing.
All these elements need to work together to better understand ocean processes to enable us to make informed predictions of the role of the ocean in a future climate.

Below are my preferred tools to answer scientific questions.


Ocean observations are an irreplaceable asset for science and human society. Contrary to computer models, we have no chance of rerunning this climate scenario we all live in. Thus we have to observe as much as we can! I have worked with a variety of observations, from moored current meters, over shipboard measurements to remotely sensed data, making me appreciate all the hard work that goes into the collection of high-quality data.


From the source code of climate models over analysis notebooks to the visualization of data, oceanographers need to code!
Larger and larger datasets require computational efficiency, while collaboration with other scientists and software developers avoids repetition and encourages widely useable software.
I firmly believe all scientific code needs to be open-source to break down barriers that result from requiring expensive licenses to software.
I aim to make my scientific results 100% reproducible, well documented and integrate with community-driven projects like xarray and xgxm . This saves people time deciphering appendices, and recoding methods which they can spend on more exciting science and perhaps improving the code to the benefit of everyone.

Numerical Models

Modern supercomputers enable us to simulate the earth system with unprecedented detail. Numerical models provide dynamical context for observations and are essential for predicting the future climate. I have worked with idealized model simulations using MITgcm during my grad school. Currently, I am working with both coupled and ocean-only configurations of GFDL's MOM6 including biogeochemical models for the ocean.


In Progress / Submitted

    In Press / Published

    1. Busecke, J. J. M., A. L. Gordon, Z. Li, F. M. Bingham, and J. Font, 2014: Subtropical surface layer salinity budget and the role of mesoscale turbulence. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013JC009715.
      PDF online
    2. Bingham, F. M., J. J. M. Busecke, A. L. Gordon, C. F. Giulivi, and Z. Li, 2014: The North Atlantic subtropical surface salinity maximum as observed by Aquarius. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JC009825.
      PDF online
    3. Gordon, A., C. Giulivi, J. J. M. Busecke, and F. Bingham, 2015: Differences Among Subtropical Surface Salinity Patterns. Oceanography, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2015.02.
      PDF online
    4. Gordon, A. L., B. A. Huber, and J. J. M. Busecke, 2015: Bottom water export from the western Ross Sea, 2007 through 2010: Ross Sea Bottom Water export. Geophysical Research Letters, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GL064457.
      PDF online
    5. Busecke, J. J. M., R. P. Abernathey, and A. L. Gordon, 2017: Lateral Eddy Mixing in the Subtropical Salinity Maxima of the Global Ocean. Journal of Physical Oceanography, https://doi.org/10.1175/JPO-D-16-0215.1.
    6. Swart, N. C., and others, 2018: Reflections on the CLIVAR Early Career Scientists Symposium 2016. npj Climate and Atmospheric Science, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41612-018-0015-y.
      PDF online
    7. Busecke, J. J. M., and R. P. Abernathey, 2019: Ocean mesoscale mixing linked to climate variability. Science Advances, https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aav5014.
    8. Busecke, J. J. M., L. Resplandy, and J. P. Dunne, 2019: The Equatorial Undercurrent and the Oxygen Minimum Zone in the Pacific. Geophysical Research Letters, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019GL082692.
    9. Bingham, F. M., J. J. M. Busecke, and A. L. Gordon, 2019: Variability of the South Pacific Subtropical Surface Salinity Maximum. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JC014598.
    10. Busecke, J., and R. Abernathey, 2020: CMIP6 without the interpolation: Grid-native analysis with Pangeo in the cloud. Earth and Space Science Open Archive, 1, https://doi.org/10.1002/essoar.10504241.1.
    11. Nummelin, A., J. J. M. Busecke, T. W. N. Haine, and R. P. Abernathey, 2020: Diagnosing the Scale and Space Dependent Horizontal Eddy Diffusivity at the Global Surface Ocean. Journal of Physical Oceanography, https://doi.org/10.1175/JPO-D-19-0256.1.
      PDF online


    • since 2017

      Postdoctoral Research Associate Princeton University

      I am currently a Postdoc in Prof. Resplandys research group.

    • 2010 - 2017

      Graduate Research Associate Columbia University

      I did my PhD with Prof. Gordon at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory.

    • 2008 - 2010

      Research Assistant GEOMAR/University of Kiel

      My BS thesis was supervised by Prof. Dr. Arne Biastoch.


    • 2017
      Ph.D. (Columbia University)

      Advisor: Prof. Dr. Arnold Gordon
      Major: Physical Oceanography

    • 2016
      M.Phil (Columbia University)

      Advisor: Prof. Dr. Arnold Gordon
      Major: Physical Oceanography

    • M.A. (Columbia University)

      Advisor: Prof. Dr. Arnold Gordon
      Major: Physical Oceanography

    • 2010
      B.Sc. (University of Kiel / geomar)

      Advisor: Prof. Dr. Arne Biastoch
      Major: Physics of the Earth System: Oceanography-Meteorology-Geophysics


    • Mar/Apr 2013
      B/O SARMIENTO DE GAMBOA (Subtropical North Atlantic)

      Assistance with sampling strategy Underway sampling Data viz/management

    • Sep/Oct 2012
      R/V KNORR (Subtropical North Atlantic)

      CTD/LADCP Underway sampling Data viz/management

    • Jan/Feb 2011
      R/V NATHANIEL B. PALMER (Ross Sea, Antarctica)


    • Jan/Feb 2009
      R/V METEOR (Eastern subtropical North Atlantic)



    • Outstanding Student Paper Award (2016)

    • Invitation to CLIVAR Early Career Science Symposium (2016)

    • NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship (2014)

    • Outstanding Student Presentation Award (2014)

    • United States Antarctic Service Medal (2012)

    Public Appearances

    • How important is the equatorial current system for the extent of the tropical oxygen minimum zones?

      Ocean Deoxygenation Conference 2018 Kiel, Germany

    • Interannual Variability of Ocean Mesoscale Mixing Correlated with ENSO

      Ocean Sciences Meeting 2018 Portland, OR, USA

    • Temporal variability of surface eddy diffusivities in the global ocean from altimetry

      AMS 21st Conference on Atmospheric and Oceanic Fluid Dynamics 2018 Portland, OR, USA

    • Temporal Variability in Surface Eddy Mixing

      Global Ocean Salinity and the Water Cycle Workshop 2017 Woods Hole, USA

    • Time variable eddy mixing in the global Sea Surface Salinity maxima (received OSPA award)

      AGU Fall Meeting 2016 San Francisco, USA

    • Time variable eddy mixing in the surface salinity maxima of the global ocean

      CLIVAR Open Science Conference 2016 Qingdao, China

    • Eddy mixing in the subtropical surface salinity maximum regions

      Ocean Sciences Meeting 2016 New Orleans, USA

    • Time variable eddy mixing in the North Atlantic

      Open Science Conference: Salinity and Freshwater Changes in the Ocean 2015 Hamburg, Germany

    • Export of salty surface water to depth in the North Atlantic

      AGU Fall Meeting 2014 San Francisco, USA

    • Differences Between the Subtropical Surface Salinity Patterns

      ESA workshop - Ocean Salinity Science 2014 Exeter, UK

    • The North Atlantic surface layer and the shallow overturning circulation

      EGU General Assembly 2014 Vienna, Austria

    • Evidence for the origin of the subsurface salinity maximum in the subtropical North Atlantic (received OSPA award)

      Ocean Science Meeting 2014 Honolulu, USA

    • Ocean Thinking: Changes in Latitude

      NASA SPURS Webinar Series 2013

    • Bottom Water Export from the western Ross Sea

      AGU Fall Meeting 2012 San Francisco, USA


    • Columbia University (11/12/2019)

      Working with output from general circulation models using xesmf and xgcm

    • Princeton University (10/14/2019)

      Junior student colloquium: Plotting maps in python

    • Hun School, Princeton (10/18/2018)

      Invited Guest Lecture

    • Princeton University (10/24/2018)


    • Columbia University (2013)

      Earth Systems - Climate EESCV2100

    • Columbia University (2012)

      Intro to Physical Oceanography EESCW4925

    • Columbia University (2012)

      Earth Oceans and Atmospheres EESCW4930


      Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, Journal of Oceanography, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, NASA ROSES Proposal Review, Deep-Sea Research Part II, Biogeosciences